Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, considered among the top Bengali literary figures, influenced his writings not only Bengal’s society but also the whole country.
Bankim Chandra was a scholarly writer, and few people know that his first published work was in Bengali, not in Bengali, which was named ‘Rajmohans Wife.’
Born in a traditional and prosperous Bengali family in 1838, Bankim Chandra’s first published Bengali work was ‘Durgeshanandini’, which was printed in March 1865.
‘Durgasthanini’ was a novel but on the other hand, he realized that his true genius was in poetry writing and he started writing poems.
Bankim, who composed many important literary works, was educated at the Hooghly College and Presidency College.
These desks of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee are safe in the Victoria Memorial Museum in Kolkata.
Publication of ‘Durgasthanini’
He graduated the same year in which India had organized the first revolt against the English Empire.
In 1857 he passed the BA and in 1869 he also obtained a degree in law.
Bankim was not only a literary but also a government official, he employed many high government positions like his official father and retired from government service in 1891.
He was married at the age of eleven and his wife passed away within a few years, after which he married another Rajlakshmi Devi and had three daughters.
In 1865, ‘Durgasanandini’ was published but no specific discussion was done, but within the same year, in 1866, he composed the next novel ‘Kapalkundla’ which became very well known.
In April 1872, he started removing a journal named Bangadarshan in which he raised serious literary-social and cultural issues. It was a major turning point in the life of a person who wrote Romantic literature so far.
In 1952, Hemen Gupta also made a film called ‘Ananda Math’ based on this novel.
Symbol of nationalism
The contemporary of Ramkrishna Paramahansa and his close friend, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, composed Anandamatha, which later included Vande Mataram, which became a symbol of nationalism throughout the country.
Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore prepared the tune for it and the popularity of Vande Mataram started to grow rapidly.
Bankim Chandra passed away in April 1894 and 12 years after his revolutionary Bipin Chandra Pal started removing a political journal, he named him Vande Mataram.
Lala Lajpat Rai has also published a Nationalist magazine by the same name.
The versatile talent’s wealthy nationalist literary was also known as a humorous person. He also wrote comic strips ‘Kamlakantar Dakter’.
Jawaharlal Nehru and Dr. Rajendra Prasad
Vande Mataram is associated with many facets
When the new constitution of independent India was being written, Vande Mataram was not adopted as a national anthem nor did he get the status of national song.
But the President of the Constituent Assembly and India’s first President Rajendra Prasad announced on January 24, 1950 that Vande Mataram is being given the status of the national song.
The history of Vande Mataram is very interesting. Bankim Chandra composed Vande Mataram in the 1870s.
Recognizing India as a form of Durga, he told the countrymen the children of that mother. India is said to be the mother who is surrounded by darkness and anguish. Bankim urges his children to worship their mother and protect her from exploitation.
Due to the belief that India is a symbol of Durga Mama, Vande Mataram has seen a section of Muslim League and Muslim community in the coming years with a view of doubt.
Nehru took the advice of Gurudev
Due to this controversy, India’s first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, wanted to accept Vande Mataram as the national anthem of independent India.
The Muslim League and the Muslims had opposed Vande Mataram because of the reason that it was against the worship of God by giving the form of God to the nation.
Nehru himself had asked Rabindranath Tagore to give Vande Mataram the mantra of independence movement.
Rabindranath Tagore was a fan of Bankim Chandra’s poems and patriotism and he told Nehru that the first two verses of Vande Mataram should be sung in public.
Although there was no doubt about Bankim Chandra’s patriotism.
The question was that when they wrote ‘Anandamath’, there were so many comments made on Muslim kings and Muslims who ruled Bengal, in which there was a tension between the Hindu and Muslim communities.
Although Vande Mataram was written as a poem several years ago, it was later made part of the Anandmath novel published later.
The essence of Anandmath is how the Hindu saxas defeated the Muslim rulers (a scene from the film in the picture)
‘Can not say anti-Muslim’
The story of Anandmath was inspired by the incident of revolt against the British and the local Muslim king in Purnia, Danapur and Tirhat in 1772.
The essence of Anandmath is how the Hindu saxas defeated the Muslim rulers. In Anandmath, Bankim Chandra strongly criticized Bengal Muslim rulers of Bengal.
He writes in one place, “We have lost the name of our religion, caste, prestige and family … we will now give our lives.” How long will the Hindus defend their religion? ”
According to historian Tanika Sarkar, “Bankim Chandra believed that Bengal’s plight was due to Muslim kings before the British came to India.”
Bankim Chandra wrote in Bengali Ekittha Kotha, “In the Bengali history, Ekati Kotha”, “After the conquest of the Mughals, Bengal’s wealth was not taken in Bengal but taken to Delhi.”
But according to reputed historian KN Panikkar, “On the basis of some observations against Muslim rulers in the literature of Bankim Chandra, it can not be said that Bankim was anti-Muslim. Anandamath is a literary work.”
“Bankim Chandra was an employee in English rule and was under pressure to expel him from the ‘Anand Matha’ written against the British. The writing written at the end of the 19th century is necessary to understand and understand the current situation. . “