For the past seven years, Syria has been scorching for the horrific civil war. It is hardly remembered that it started with a small murals.
In March 2011, four children in Syria’s southern city of Daraa had written on a wall that ‘now your turn is doctor’.
Then hardly anyone had imagined that Bashar al-Assad studied the Syrian President and the doctor of Britain’s eyes, also the signs of Ben Ali of Tunisia, Hosni Mubarak of Egypt and Gaddafi in Libya’s line. However later the story of Syria took a new turn.
The beginning of the great and horrific civil war in Syria was from a very minor incident. Assad’s security forces arrested four artisan artisans.
They refused to give any information about their parents about security forces. Two weeks later the inhabitants of Daraaas started protesting for the release of children.
Security forces fired on this protests and killed many people in it. Then, the circumstances which started to deteriorate have not been able to control it till date.
So far, about five lakh people have died in this civil war, and for the first time, blood was released in this protest.
In every person’s death, the tone of the opposition became high. On the other hand, the strength of the security forces there also increased.
The fire of protests was increasing in cities like Holmes, Damascus and Idlib. All this started in Syria when people in the Arab countries were protesting on the streets demanding power change.
In Arab countries, the voice against the lineage of the ruler class was rising. Although Assad was hoping that he would not do the rest of the Arabian states, but there was no restriction on those who oppose him under his rule.
Even the army of Assad is accused of using chemical weapons against rebels. On Saturday, USA, France and Britain attacked in Syria against alleged chemical attacks.
What is the problem with the power of Assad?
The western forces seemed long in time that the rule of Assad is not good for peace and stability in the Middle East. In western countries, it is assumed that Asad, like other Arab countries, will be forced to leave Assad under pressure from the Syrian nationals. But this did not happen in Syria.
Syria’s majority population is of Sunni Muslims, while Assad is Shi’a Muslim. At the Jawaharlal Nehru University, Professor Aftab Kamal Pasha, a former Middle East Professor, believes that the number of Sunnis in the rebels is the highest. One reason for dissent against Asad is to be Shi’a ruler in Sunni-dominated country too.
Pasha says, “Syria has more than 80 percent population Sunni, which is involved in the rebellion and is getting support from many countries including Turkey, Saudi Arabia, USA and European Union. Bashar al-Assad’s regime was getting stronger with support from Iran. On the other side, the Hezbollah Rebel Group in Lebanon has been supporting Bashar al-Assad. Of course, Hezbollah is also the organization of Shiite fighters. In Iran, Iraq, Lebanon and Syria, Shi’a is power-free. At the same time Sunni country Qatar, UAE, Saudi group is different in the Middle East. There is rebellion due to the collision of oil gas with Shia-Sunni in Syria. ”
Pasha says, “In Syria most major army officers are Shia. The real issue is that the synergy with Israel was not cured with their oil. Israel has made Golan Hydro in its possession since 1967. Bashar Al-Assad and his father were coming to negotiate this for decades, but never got success. For all these reasons rebellious strength emerged here and many times the attempt was made to overthrow, but did not succeed.
AK Pasha believes that Bashar al-Assad had the expectations that he would strengthen the democracy. He said, “Assad had studied from Europe. There was hope for many reforms from them. In the tenure of Asad, economic disparity has increased. After the killing of Saddam Hussein, the Shi’ahs of that region got power in hand. For this reason, the influence of Iran has increased. ”
Pasha says that Asad took power after the father’s death, he hoped that he would unite all the groups and strengthen democracy, but he proved himself as his father.
Sunni dominated Saudi Arabia is the birthplace of Islam and Islam is one of the most important places in the world. Saudi is one of the world’s largest oil exporters and wealthy countries.
Saudi Arabia fears that Iran wants to dominate the Middle East and that is why it opposes the power of the area with increasing participation and influence in the Shia leadership.
Salman is mainly divided into two communities- Shia and Sunni. Immediately after the death of Prophet Mohammed, there was a dispute over who was the leader of the Muslims.
The majority of Muslims in the Muslim population are Sunni and according to the estimated data, the number is between 85 to 90 percent. People of both communities have lived together for centuries and most of their religious beliefs and customs are alike.
In the urban areas of Iraq, marriage between Sunni and Shias was very common until recently.
If there is a difference, then the principle, tradition, law, theology and religious organization. Their leaders also get to see the rivalry.
From Lebanon to Syria and Most recent conflicts from Iraq to Pakistan have enhanced the communal divide and have separated the two communities.
Who are Sunni?
Sunni treats himself as the most religious and traditional branch of Islam. Sunni is composed of the word ‘Ahal al-Sunna’, which means people who believe in the tradition.
In this case, the context of the tradition is based on the customs which are based on the behavior or parable of the Prophet Mohammed and his followers.
Sunni believes in all those prophets who have been mentioned in the Qur’an but the last Prophet Muhammad was there.
All Muslim leaders after them are seen as worldly persons.
Except Shia, Sunni religious teachers and leaders have been historically under government control.
Who is Shia?
In early Islamic history, Shi’a was in the form of a political group- ‘Shiyat Ali’ or Ali’s party.
Shiites claim that the right to lead the Muslims is only of Ali and his descendants. Ali was the son-in-law of Prophet Mohammad.
Ali was killed in a conflict about who would be the leader of the Muslims or the caliph. His sons Hussein and Hassan also fought for the caliph.
Hussein’s death took place in the war zone, while it is believed that Hassan was poisoned.
Due to these incidents, the importance of martyrdom and mourning is given due importance in Shias.
According to estimates, the number of Shiites is between 10% of the Muslim population i.e. 12 million to 17 crores.
According to Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, Azerbaijan and some figures, Shiites have a majority in Yemen.
In addition, Afghanistan, India, Kuwait, Lebanon, Pakistan, Qatar, Syria, Turkey, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates also have good number of them.
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